Research area of the South Russian Technical University (NPI) "Theory and methods of constructing devices and systems of control, monitoring and diagnostics", co-headed by Dr. of Sc., Professor V.I. Lachin.
1. Principles of construction of systems and devices for diagnostics and prediction of the state of objects with discretely distributed parameters
(Works supervisor: Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Lachin)
This class of objects includes batteries, electrochemical generators, solar batteries, electrolysis series in non-ferrous metallurgy, ship demagnetization windings, extensive DC, AC or dual current networks on ships, mines, operational circuits of power plants, substations, telephone stations and other similar objects.
There has been proposed a harmonious concept of a systematic approach to the complex task of constructing universal systems and devices for monitoring and forecasting the state of the important objects of power engineering, electrical engineering, power supply and industrial technologies combined into a single class due to increased requirements for reliability, durability, safety and uninterrupted operation in normal operating conditions, as well as the need to predict and reliably prevent unwanted or emergency situations.
This approach is based on the interconnected execution of measurement functions available for observation, assessment of the state of objects characterized by multi-element configuration, under conditions of incomplete observability and extrapolation of the received information, which are structurally organized and implemented in the framework of an adaptive model with a predictive model in the role of identifier.
The fundamentals of the theory and principles of circuit design solutions of the new element base were created, ensuring the implementation with the required accuracy of the measurement, state estimation and predictive modeling functions in the developing natural-model complexes.
The results of the work provided the basis for a doctoral dissertation and 2 theses for a Candidate degree.
The developed devices and a number of the obtained results have been implemented in the works performed on the instructions and under the supervision of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Central Design Bureau of Marine Equipment “Rubin”, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Central Marine Research Institute Design Bureau "Almaz", Nevsky Design Bureau, Naval Academy named after N. G. Kuznetsov, Rostov NPP, “EMK-Atommash” OJSC, Instrument-Making Plant “Vibrator” OJSC (St. Petersburg), and also used in the educational process of Saint Petersburg State Electrical Technical University LETI, Naval Engineering Institute, the State Maritime Institute Academy named after S.O. Makarov and SRSPU (NPI) in diploma projects, in laboratory work, computer simulator, lectures and in the published training manual.
The developed digital megohmmeter CM 1628 passed interdepartmental tests and is produced by OJSC “Instrument-making plant“ Vibrator ”(St. Petersburg). In 2008, a certificate of type approval of measuring instruments was obtained for it and it is registered in the State Register under No. 37272-08 and approved for use in the Russian Federation. The work was carried out in accordance with the design and development work "Creating a system for monitoring the state of insulation in power supply systems for special facilities", carried out in accordance with the Government of the Russian Federation No. 876-48 of December 30, 2004.
As part of this research area, more than 140 papers have been published, including patents and certificates of state registration of programs. Articles have been published in journals of various levels, including those of the Russian Academy of Sciences and recommended by the State Commission for academic degrees and titles. 2 monographs have been published.
2. Mathematical and algorithmic support for the complexes of control, forecasting and management of the processes of electrical consumption in large electric power systems (Work Supervisor: Dr. of Sc., Professor A. V. Sedov)
The work is carried out in conjunction with the laboratory of energy and electrical engineering of the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Department of Electrochemistry of the South Russian Technical University (NPI).
Purpose and description of the research area:
Efficient, trouble-free control and management of large territorial energy systems is currently not possible without the use of computer complexes for modeling, forecasting and diagnosing the state of objects. Implementation of the optimal order of electricity in the energy and power markets; solving problems of optimizing the operation of power systems in terms of minimizing losses; solving problems of energy conservation, both in the generation and in the distribution and consumption of energy; economic efficiency; environmental friendliness; Avoiding serious emergencies in power systems is largely determined by short-term and operational forecasting of changes in the electrical load in the power system and taking it into account when managing.
It is proposed to use mathematical models that implement new decomposition methods and approaches that have been successfully developed by a team of contributors over the years. These methods and approaches are based on new, adapted and developed in relation to the power systems of modern mathematical methods and theories. These methods and approaches, as applied to the load schedules of the power system, allow to more accurately take into account their complex multidimensional dynamics of change from the action of various influencing factors, taking into account the structure, modes and features of the particular power system.
The implementation of these methods and approaches as part of software and hardware systems allows us to improve the quality of the dispatching control of the power system and thereby increase the efficiency and reliability of the work of the territorial power systems.
The proposed approaches and methods can be used in other systems of control, diagnostics and management, in particular, in systems for the rapid analysis of the chemical composition of metal alloys (structural steels and alloys, precious metals) and others.
Pilot implementation and testing of software and mathematical software is carried out as part of automated measuring systems (AMS) of dispatching services on the power systems in the South of Russia (Rostovenergo, Volgogradenergo).
As part of this research area, more than 120 papers have been published, including patents and certificates of state registration of programs. Articles have been published in journals of various levels, those of the Russian Academy of Sciences and recommended by the State Commission for academic degrees and titles. 2 monographs have been published:
a) Sedov A.V. Modeling objects with discrete-distributed parameters: decomposition approach. M .: Science, 2010 - 438 p.
b) Sedov A.V., Nadtok I.I. Monitoring systems for the recognition and prediction of power consumption: models, methods, algorithms and tools. Rostov: Izd.RGU, 2002 - 320 p.
There have been pilot implementations at a number of territorial power systems.
In 2009, a grant was received by the Russian Federal Property Fund.
Based on this research area there has been defended a doctoral dissertation and 2 theses for a Candidate degree are being worked on.
3. Development of multi-level distributed monitoring systems of technological parameters of industrial facilities (Works Co-supervisors: Candidate of technical Sciences, associate professor Malina A.K., Candidate of technical Sciences, associate professor Plotnikov D.A.).
The following results have been obtained:
1.1. A multi-level distributed system for registering the operation of protection relays has been developed. The system was implemented at Nevinnomysskaya SDPS, Volgodonskaya NPP, Smolenskaya SDPS, Ufimskaya NPP. Separate elements of the system operate at Novocherkassk and Krasnodar State District Power Stations.
1.2. A multi-level distributed system of vibration monitoring and protection of turbine units has been developed. The system has been implemented at more than twenty power plants of the Russian Federation.
1.3. A multi-level distributed system of non-commercial metering of gas consumption has been developed. The system is implemented at Nevinnomysskaya SDPS.
1.4. Components of a multi-level distributed system of afterburning of volatile hydrocarbon compounds have been developed. The system was put into operation at the Novocherkassk Electrode Plant.
1.5. A multi-level distributed monitoring system for mechanical parameters of turbine units has been developed. Currently, it is being prepared for trial operation.
1.6. There have been published twelve papers; seven certificates on computer programs registration were received.
The developments have been implemented on more than 100 turbine units of 10 power plants in Russia.
The main results of the work:
Multi-level distributed non-commercial gas metering system
The system is designed to collect, display and archive data from gas metering stations. The system can be used in thermal power plants, boiler houses, housing and public utilities facilities, as well as in other enterprises that need timely and reliable information on gas consumption.
Main features of the system:
Through the use of technology DCOM easily integrates into the existing network infrastructure of the enterprise.
It provides access to current and accumulated data, as well as management of basic functions using any application that supports COM technology (MS Excel, MatLab, MS Visio, and many others).
By connecting additional metering stations it can be easily used for solving problems of water, heat and other parameters metering at an enterprise.
Information on the current parameters of gas consumption, as well as on the modes of operation of the equipment of metering stations, is presented in a visual graphic form. Color and audible alarms about abnormal modes of operation allow you to timely attract the attention of the dispatcher.
Presentation of information on a given and actual gas consumption on a single graph makes it possible to easily identify time intervals and objects with abnormally high or low consumption. Data for a selected period of time, presented in tabular form, can be easily transferred to popular applications (MS Excel, MatLab, etc.) for further analysis.
A clear and effective configuration system allows authorized persons to set the parameters of the system in accordance with the tasks solved in the enterprise.
Multi-level distributed system of vibration monitoring and protection of turbine units
The system of vibromonitoring and protection of turbine units is designed to collect, archive, display on a computer screen and to print current and accumulated information on the vibration state of the turbine unit. With appropriate configuration, the system equipment can generate control actions in the alarm system and emergency shutdown of the unit. The system can be used at thermal electric and compressor stations, as well as at other enterprises that need to control the vibration parameters of rotor mechanisms.
Multi-level distributed monitoring system for mechanical parameters of turbine units
The monitoring system of vibration and mechanical parameters is designed to collect, archive, display on a computer screen and transfer to a higher level of an automated process control system of current and accumulated information on the vibration state of turbine units of thermal power plants of the Russian power complex. With appropriate configuration, the system equipment can generate control actions to the alarm systems and emergency shutdown of turbine units. The system can be used at thermal electric and compressor stations, as well as at other enterprises that need to control the vibration parameters of rotor mechanisms.
Block diagram of the system:
The system consists of a system controller and several subsystems interconnected by a CANopen inter-block interface.
The main components of the system:
An intelligent sensor controller based on a digital signal processor from the Blackfin family of Analog Devices.
- The universal block of the average level for collecting, processing and display of operational information.
- Elements of the instrument rack system in the process of calibration of the measuring channels.
Multichannel parameter monitoring and event recording system “Pulsar”
The automated multichannel parameter monitoring and event recording system “Pulsar” (hereinafter referred to as the system) is designed to automatically register the numbers and response time of the emergency protection relay, as well as monitor the levels of analog signals by accumulating the received information and transmitting it over a wired communication line to an upper level computer (Computer UL) dispatcher.
The system is designed for use in electrical, boiler and compressor stations as a means of monitoring the change of technological parameters (temperature, pressure, etc.) and controlling the operation of the protection relay.
4. Integrated system of technogenic and environmental monitoring of large objects and settlements. (Works supervisor: Candidate of technical Sciences, Assoc. Prof. S. M. Lapeev)
The integrated management system of technological and environmental monitoring ensures the integration of all services for the effective work of managing the vital activity of a large technological facility or a subject of the Federation and for coordinating actions in emergency situations.
The system is designed to register and analyze emergency and crisis situations, provide information interaction between the dispatcher duty services, coordinate emergency response cooperation, provide complete and reliable information about all emergency situations.
The system provides:
• Automatic measurement of current (maximum) values of parameters of potential hazard sources:
For example: chlorine content in piped water in the main water mains, monitoring of parameters of heating networks, control of electricity supply, monitoring of air parameters in areas where enterprises with hazardous industries are located, and others.
• Visualization of the state of monitored parameters and objects with reference to the object map, including vehicle monitoring and object transport logistics using GPS and GLONASS.
• Automatic prompt informing of the personnel responsible for the operation of the process equipment about the facts of attaining subcritical and critical values of monitored parameters.
• Automatic transmission to the centralized control panel of information regarding the fact of reaching critical values.
• Automatic control of communication channels and power supply status.
• Alert of the responsible officials of enterprises, institutions and organizations located in the area of possible destruction.
At the explosion and fire hazardous facilities, such as chemical industry enterprises, gas stations, water utilities, boiler houses, the following parameters should be monitored and controlled:
• Concentration of explosive substances and mixtures in the air;
• Level of explosive liquids in tanks, apparatuses and other containers;
• The presence of leaks of explosive liquids;
• Pressure and temperature indicators of explosive liquids and gas mixtures in pipelines, tanks, apparatuses, etc.
The structure of the system includes a number of subsystems integrated with ERP, SCADA, software and hardware systems.
Separate elements of the system were developed at the department within the framework of various projects and implemented at the enterprises: MUE Vodokanal (Novocherkassk), MUE Thermal Networks (Novocherkassk), Vodokanal (Primorsko-Akhtarsk).
A variant of the system is the “Smart City” concept, which combines a multi-level system for collecting information, processing and distributing it to consumers, and a management and dispatch control system.
Upper level ACS. Consumers of the collected and processed information are the control centers of public utilities, mobile (temporary and mobile) control centers, troubleshooting teams, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the fire service, the city authorities.
The average level of ACS. These are servers for collecting, processing and distributing information by consumers.
Lower level of ACS. The level of data collection at which the “Intelecon” series controllers are installed, allowing to collect information from sensors and control actuators directly at the facilities: Vodokanal, Gorgaz, Gorsvet, heat and power networks.
Automated dispatch control and management system of technological objects (ADCMS)
- based on the “Decont” software and hardware complex and Genesis 32 Scada-system as a multi-level distributed system.
- visualization of the state of equipment and technological processes in real time;
- management of technological equipment from the workplace dispatcher, technologist, operator;
- archiving process parameters:
- generation, recording and issuing of alarms (visual, audible):
- recording the actions of staff:
- automation of workflow of production services.
Automated dispatch control and management system (ASDCU) is implemented on the basis of modern software and hardware systems.
Implementation of ADCMS will allow to solve the following problems:
- creation of a unified information system;
- reduction of energy consumption;
- increase the efficiency of technological equipment;
- operational accounting of energy consumed;
- operational management of technological objects, production and non-production areas;
- visual display of technological cycles and equipment operation modes in real time, with indication by analog and digital devices;
- reduction of losses of electricity, gas, cold, hot water, steam, etc .;
- conducting automated document flow of production services of the enterprise;
- ensuring the automation of the processing and documentation of technological processes and emergency situations, with the notification of the dispatcher;
- ensuring functions of the security and fire alarm system.
5. Analytical design of the laws of nonlinear dynamic objects control under limited uncertainty conditions (Works Supervisor: Doctor of Technical Sciences, Prof. V. S. Elsukov)
This topic is devoted to the development of methods of structural-parametric synthesis and design of automatic control systems (ACS) for nonlinear electromechanical and electric power facilities, as well as power electronics converters with variable characteristics. In particular, it can be the following ACS, including multi-channel coordinating management:
- electromagnetic suspension of rotating shafts of turbines and pumps in vacuum and cryogenic engineering, machines and instruments for nuclear and space installations, gyroscopes, inertial energy storage, centrifuges, shakers, robots, high-speed spindles grinding and milling machines, as well as high-speed ground transport crew, the moving part of precision multi-axis electric drives of electron microscopes, plotters, devices for the manufacture of integrated circuits;
- multi-motor electric drive of lock and other crane mechanisms, electric rolling stock, technological lines for processing various materials and dosing of the corresponding components in chemical technology;
- turbine generators in power engineering and pulse-width converters of power electronics.
There has been developed the method of structural-parametric synthesis of ACS with the help of nonlinear objects with variable characteristics, based on an algorithmic solution of the inverse problem of dynamics. The peculiarity of this solution is that when forming the components of the control law, the method of separation of motions is applied, i.e. for each of these components, its own rate of its formation is used. Moreover, to compensate for external and parametric perturbations and the uncertainty of the characteristics of nonlinear control objects, an indirect method of their evaluation and binary-operator stabilizing and compensating feedbacks are used.
Based on the proposed method of structural-parametric synthesis of non-linear ACS and its individual procedures, the following has been developed:
The system of coordinated control of the electromagnetic multipoint suspension of the movable part of the integrated multi-axis drive.
In the developed system, instead of the current control loop of an electromagnet, as in the well-known electromagnetic drive systems, a magnetic flux control loop is used with the original computer evaluating the latter. To compensate for the nonlinear dependence of an electromagnet lifting force on the flux linkage, a binary-operator converter is included in the system that implements an inverse nonlinear relationship.
And to compensate for power disturbances, a differential compensating coupling with a binary-operator converter was used in the form of an additional control loop for variable structure.
Moreover, the temporal separation of averaged and relative movements in a designed system is accomplished by accelerating the rate of relative movement, and not by decreasing the rate of averaged movement, as in known electromagnetic drive systems.
The developed multipoint electromagnetic drive system provides increasing of dynamic accuracy of matching and stabilizing air gaps of a multipoint electromagnetic suspension by at least two times.
Coordinating control system of a multichannel electromechanical suspension of a cargo stabilization platform of a construction crane
The developed system is a three-circuit multi-channel system of subordinate regulation: the external circuit is the regulation of height of the load lifting, subordinate to it are the control loops of the speed of raising the corners of the triangular load stabilization platform, and their subordinate are the current control loops of the driving motors rotating the drums with the platform suspension cables.
The speed control loops contain, firstly, a parametrically stabilizing gain of the direct circuit of its control channel, feedback from the original binary operator computer to the inverse of the specified gain. Secondly, differential binary-operator communication to compensate for the indirectly measured load torque of the drive motor. Moreover, the operator of the differential compensating connection is the control loop of the variable structure with an integral alternating feedback.
In parallel with the proportional height regulator, which is a regulator of averaged motion, real proportional-differential regulators of relative motion are included. Moreover, these regulators have a higher gain than the different speed separation of the processes of averaged and relative movements of the system.
The developed system allows increasing the productivity and safety of cargo transportation by a construction crane in conditions of dense urban development.
The system of selectively coordinated load regulation of traction machines of a direct current locomotive
To accelerate the process of leveling the loads of traction machines in the developed system, a logical separation of this process and the process of protection against excessive sliding of the wheel sets of the locomotive is carried out. In the known systems of a similar purpose, a different speed separation of these processes is used by slowing down the process of load balancing.
The control loops of the maximum armature current and load balancing are equipped with binary-operator transducers, allowing compensation of the parametric perturbation in the form of a change in the rotational speed of the traction machines.
The speed control loop contains, firstly, a binary-operator converter, which allows taking into account the dependence of the torque of the traction machines on their magnetic flux, which is variable. Secondly, parametric feedback on the ratio of the magnitude of the change in the mass of the load, due to which the gain of the straight circuit of the speed control loop is adjusted. Thirdly, an additional, coordinated to the speed control loop, a control loop for the deviation of the acceleration of the wheel set with an integral controller for testing the unmeasured perturbation in the form of a change in the load resistance force.
The developed system allows increasing the efficiency of electric braking of electric rolling stock and the return of electricity to the contact network.
The results of the work are used:
- in JSC “All-Russian Research and Design Institute of Electric Locomotive Building” in the design and study of automatic control systems for traction electric drives of prospective electric stock;
- at the Technical University of Ilmenau (Germany) in the development and research of the coordinating control system of a multi-channel electromechanical suspension of a load stabilizing platform of a maneuverable construction crane;
-in the educational process of the South Russian State Polytechnical University (NPI) as a part of the lectures on the following disciplines: “Theory of automatic control”, “Modeling systems”, “Computer-aided design of systems and controls”, “Modern problems of automation and control”, as well as for course and diploma papers of students studying bachelor and master degree programs in "Automation and Control".
The work was carried out with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 07-08-00111-a and 10-08-00254-a).
Based on the results, the doctoral dissertation (V. S. Elsukov "Structural-parametric synthesis of nonlinear control systems with differential binary-operator relations") and a thesis for a Candidate degree have been defended.
There have been published over 80 scientific papers, including received 26 copyright certificates and patents for inventions and utility models.
6. Mathematical modeling of electronic circuits (Work Supervisor: Doctor of Technical Sciences, Prof. N. S. Savelov)
The scientific work is aimed at creating new theoretical approaches, as well as methods of synthesis and research of mathematical models of electronic circuits (electrical circuits) and other objects with the aim of a comprehensive analysis of static and dynamic modes.
As part of the research, new scientific results have been obtained, significantly increasing the efficiency of mathematical modeling of various devices, systems and processes.
A new algorithmic framework for the synthesis and study of mathematical models has been developed - a modification of the Gauss elimination method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. A significant advantage of the new modification is the possibility of accelerated re-solving of the system of equations after certain changes in the matrix of coefficients.
Based on this modification, new methods for analyzing electronic circuits in DC mode and in AC mode have been developed.
New forms of initial mathematical models, adapted to the problem of forming and correcting equations of electronic circuits, have been proposed.
A new method of forming equations of state has been developed.
A new method for forming partially symbolic functions has been developed.
A new approach to the identification of regions in the space of states differing by the dynamics of transient processes has been developed. This approach is based on the use of the proposed new constructive concept in the theory of ordinary differential equations - the concept of variability.
A new method is proposed to ensure the stability of numerical algorithms for calculating transients.
According to the research results, more than 50 scientific works have been published, reports have been made at numerous scientific conferences, including the International Conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of L.S. Pontryagin, held by Lomonosov Moscow State University and Mathematical Institute named after V. A. Steklov of the RAS, as well as at scientific conferences of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) "Modern Problems of Fundamental and Applied Sciences".
A number of reports have been awarded with diplomas of winners of research competitions.
This research area is developed in cooperation with scientists from the Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany.
The most important areas of scientific interest are:
1. The solution of the most urgent problems for the prospective customer in the field of electrical engineering, electronics, induction heating and in related areas.
2. Mathematical modeling of objects and processes of different physical nature in order to significantly improve the parameters of technical devices.
7. Principles of construction of control devices for solid-fuel power plants with electrothermal effects on intracameral processes (Work Supervisor: Candidate of technical Sciences, associate professor I.V. Horuzhyy)
This topic is devoted to the development of methods and systems for controlling the output parameters of solid fuel power plants (SFPP) without thermal and gas-dynamic restrictions on the energetics of the fuels used, the composition of the combustion products and the operating time of the products.
The relevance of research in this area is determined by the need to improve the controlled solid fuel engines and gas generators for various purposes to the functional level and energy characteristics of liquid engines while retaining the known advantages of unmanaged power plants (high volume specific impulse, long storage periods without maintenance, short preparation time for start-up, etc.). At the same time, the problem of the development of such control systems is connected, in particular, with the search for effective physical methods of influence on intracameral processes with the necessary use of high-energy composite solid fuels used in modern unmanaged power plants.
The developed electrothermal method for controlling the SFPP output parameters is based on the direct effect of electric current on the burning surface of solid fuel charges and, unlike the thermodynamic and gas-dynamic methods used (“thermal knife”, etc.), does not have mechanical actuators and temperature limitations in the combustion chamber. In addition, it allows you to maintain the stability of the working processes of the object at pressures below the critical, to organize intermittent modes of operation, control functions and suppression of intracameral acoustic resonances, as well as to perform advanced pre-launch diagnostics of the technical state of the object.
Applications: low thrust propulsion systems for automatic flight control of aerodynamic and spacecraft; gas generators of deep-sea apparatuses, plasma MHD generators, launch systems, etc.
Initially, exploratory research on this topic was carried out within the framework of the chemical-technological research area of the South-Pacific State Pedagogical University on request of the Section of Applied Problems under the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Based on the results of research, 15 papers have been published, including in journals, recommended by the State Commission for academic degrees and titles, 4 patents for inventions have been obtained, Certificate of state registration of algorithms and programs has been received, and theses for a Candidate degree have been defended.
Thus, the results of research work performed are:
- Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation on the implementation of the R&D projects;
- 2 certificates of type approval of developed measuring instruments and registration in the State Register;
- 2 doctoral dissertations and 3 theses for a Candidate degree;
- 4 grants RFBR;
- 3 monographs, including one under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
- more than 2 dozen certificates of state registration of software products and patents for inventions and utility models;
- implementation of the results of development at the enterprises of the Russian Federation.